(MUST-READ)Darwinia Mainnet Progressive Launch Announcement

8 min readSep 15, 2020


Darwinia Network is a decentralized heterogeneous cross-chain bridge protocol developed using Substrate, focusing on decentralized cross-chain token swap, exchange, and market. Darwinia also serves as a critical infrastructure for single-chain application upgrades to cross-chain versions, including Defi, Game, DEX, NFT market, etc. Our vision is to build the future Internet of Tokens.

After running the Darwinia Crab network, we have gained a lot of experience and we are ready for the Darwinia Mainnet launch. The Darwinia mainnet is planned to launch between September 25 and October 15. Darwinia mainnet launch process will be a progressive process, divided into several stages to unlock main functional modules.

Pre-launch stage: Genesis Generation (current stage)

Users can participate in the Genesis Generation through the “Cross-chain Wormhole” application. RING/KTON sent to the “wormhole” will be burned, and the records will be written into the Genesis Block of the Darwinia Network.

Users with RING/KTON balance on the mainnet can participate in staking immediately after the mainnet launch. In contrast, other users will have to wait for the bridge (available at the second stage) to transfer ERC20 (or TRC20) RING/KTON to Darwinia mainnet to participate in staking.

Besides, CRING on the Darwinia Crab network can also be genesis swapped to RING on Darwinia mainnet at a ratio (1 RING = 100 CRING) at this stage. Darwinia has reserved 40M RING as the backing asset of CRING.

This stage will end at 08:00 UTC on September 24, 2020 (16:00, September 24, 2020, Beijing time). At that time,Gringotts will stop depositing RING to get KTON and genesis generation.

Please refer to the Reference 1: "Preparation Work Before Mainnet Launch"below.

Note 1: The Genesis Generation does not support transferring of the Gringotts deposit receipt on Ethereum/TRON.Note 2: Genesis swapping of the Darwinia Crab network does not include CKTON, which can only be used on the Crab network.Note 3: Through the Genesis Generation process, you can participate in mainnet staking at the very beginning and get staking revenue. However, because the bridge is not available until stage two, you will not be able to move your coins on the mainnet back to Ethereum, where most exchanges support at this very moment.  Please weigh in the pros and cons before you act.

Stage 1: Staking

This is the first stage of the mainnet launch. The mainnet will activate the staking function. Users with Darwinia’s native RING or KTON balance can now participate in staking.

The time to release the staking is 14 days. The staking reward is equally split among RING and KTON staking pools.

You can voluntarily commit to locking the RING token for a period (1–36 months) for KTON rewards as an incentive. But if you want to break this commitment and claim the locked RING before the due date, you will need to pay triple the amount of KTON as a penalty for the length of period unfulfilled.

Validators can participate in the block producing and verification by running validator nodes.

Stage 2: Ethereum-Darwinia One-way Cross-chain Bridge

This is the second stage of the mainnet launch. At this stage, Darwinia will activate a unidirectional cross-chain bridge between Ethereum and Darwinia. RING/KTON can be transferred from Ethereum to Darwinia.

The RING deposit receipt locked in the Evolution Land Gringotts can also be transferred to the Darwinia Network as bonded native RING through the bridge. The RINGs will maintain its bonding status in staking, and the bonding time is set to the remaining time as it was in Gringotts.

For example: if the user has a deposit of 1,000 RINGs in Gringotts and the expiration time is one year. After the user transfers the deposit receipt to Darwinia through the bridge, the user will have a 1.000 staked RING with a one-year lockup time.

Note 1: The bridge from Ethereum to Darwinia Network will be based on the innovative Darwinia sub-linear ChainRelay, a decentralized bridge.Note 2: During this stage, the bridge from Darwinia to Ethereum is not activated yet.  This means tokens transferred from Ethereum to Darwinia can not move back until the backward bridge available in the next stage.  However, assets on the mainnet can participate in staking.

Stage 3: Ethereum-Darwinia Unidirectional Cross-chain Bridge / Transfer

This is the third stage of the mainnet launch. Darwinia will activate the transfer function for RING/KTON. The bidirectional bridge between Darwinia and Ethereum will be activated as well. RING/KTON can be transferred back and forth between these two networks.

Note 1: The bridge from Darwinia Network to Etheruem will be based on an enhanced Proof of Authority model, which will be upgraded to Darwinia sub-linear ChainRelay powered model in the fourth stage of the mainnet launch.

Stage 4: Multi-directional Cross-chain Tranfer

At this stage, the mainnet has activated most of the internal functions. We will build more direct bidirectional bridges between Darwinia Network and other blockchains and activate routing functions. You will be able to transfer assets between any connected blockchains via Darwinia Network.

The planned list of external blockchains to support during this stage are shown below:

  • CRAB Network
  • TRON
  • BSC
  • EOS
  • Others

The priority might be adjusted according to the ecosystem development of the target blockchain network.

Reference 1:

👉 Preparations before the mainnet launch

Before the mainnet launch, Darwinia will carry out a series of upgrades and will stop depositing RING to get KTON in Gringotts and genesis generation at 2020–09–24 8:00 UTC or 2020–09–24 16:00 Beijing time. Please complete the genesis transferring of RING and KTON, and the genesis swapping of CRING before the deadline.

RING and KTON’s cross-chain transferring

Darwinia provides a cross-chain wormhole tool: https://wormhole.darwinia.network/, through which cross-chain transferring can be easily achieved.

Note 1: The advantage of cross-chain transferring is that RING/KTON can be used for staking immediately after the mainnet is launched. The disadvantage is that these tokens can not be transferred back to the Ethereum network until the Transfer function is activated at stage 3.Note 2: Genesis transferring is more suitable for validators who want to participate staking immediately after the mainnet goes live. Regular users who do not wish to lose liquidity should stay on Ethereum instead.  Please consider the pros and cons before taking action.
  1. Go to https://wormhole.darwinia.network/, click “Ethereum,” and then click “cross-chain transfer” that appears

2. In the pop-up, select “Ethereum → Darwinia MainNet” or “Tron → Darwinia Mainnet” and then click “Cross-chain transfer” taking Ethereum as an example, the “MetaMask Notification” window will pop up, select your account and connect to the wallet:

3. successfully connected, a new page will pop up for you to fill in the “Darwinia mainnet receiving address.”

4. After input the Darwinia mainnet receiving address and quantity, click “Submit” to execute the transaction, and wait for the transaction to succeed, that is, the cross-chain transferring is completed.

CRING’s Genesis Generation

CRING can be genesis swapped to RING at a ratio of 100:1, and the redeemed RING will be issued to the “same-origin address” of the Darwinia mainnet after the Darwinia mainnet goes live. You can experience the mainnet functions for the first time when the one-way bridge is not opened, such as participating in staking.

What is the relationship between Darwinia Crab address and Darwinia mainnet address? Most of the chains developed based on the Substrate framework, such as Darwinia Crab and Darwinia Mainnet, use the SS58 address format (similar to Bitcoin base-58 encoding), designed to be extensible and used to identify specific addresses on the Substrate chain. Different chains have different methods of determining the address. Therefore, due to the difference in SS58 prefix, the same private key has different addresses in different networks. These different network addresses are called “same-origin addresses.”

Darwinia related SS58 prefix: Darwinia Crab: 42, Darwinia Mainnet: 18. Other networks also have specific SS58 prefix, which can be viewed through SUBSCAN “SS58 Address Transform Tool”: https://polkadot.subscan.io/tools/ss58_transform

  1. Go to the Darwinia web wallet and click “Genesis Swap” on the “Account” page.

2. Input the number of CRINGs you want to redeem and send the transaction. CRING will be converted to the mainnet RING at a ratio of 100:1.

3. After the transaction is successful; you can view the transaction details through crab.subscan.io. The RINGs will be sent to the Darwinia mainnet “same-origin address” corresponding to the Crab address after the mainnet goes live.

Note 1: Currently only supports "same-origin address" mapping;Note 2: In the future, we will add Crab network -> Darwinia mainnet swapping in https://wormhole.darwinia.network/ to provide a complete user experience.

Reference 2:

👉 The details of Darwinia mainnet genesis block

The following accounts will be configured in the mainnet genesis configuration, and each account will have a corresponding balance:

  1. Ethereum Backing Account. The balance in this account is used to back ERC20 RING and KTON on Ethereum, so the balance in this account is equal to the number of ERC20 RING and KTON in Ethereum. In the process of genesis cross-chain transferring, as ERC20 RING and KTON are continuously being mapped to the mainnet, resulting in a decrease of ERC20 RING and KTON in Ethereum, the balance in this account will also decrease simultaneously.
  2. TRON Backing Account. The balance in this account is used to back TRC20 RING and KTON on TRON, so the balance in this account is equal to the number of TRC20 RING and KTON on TRON. In the process of genesis cross-chain transferring, as TRC20 RING and KTON are continuously being mapped to the mainnet, resulting in a decrease in TRC20 RING and KTON in TRON, the balance in this account will also decrease simultaneously.
  3. Crab Backing Account. The balance in this account is used to back CRING in the Crab network. Because of 1 RING = 100 CRING, so the balance in this account is equal to CRING/100 in the Crab network. This account initially has 40M RING endorsed for CRING. When CRING is swapped into the RING of the mainnet through the genesis cross-chain swapping, the RING in this account will be reduced to less than 40M.
  4. Vesting Accounts of foundation and development team
  • Foundation Vesting 400M, five years vesting period begins when mainnet launch
  • Team Vesting 300M, one year vesting period begins after one year since mainnet launch

5. Other Accounts

  • User’s account on the mainnet after RING and KTON genesis cross-chain transferring.
  • User’s account on the mainnet after CRING genesis cross-chain swapping.

The total supply of RING balances is 2B.


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As an open cross-chain bridge protocol based on Substrate, Darwinia focuses on the construction of future Internet of Tokens. TG: http://t.me/DarwiniaNetwork